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when are growth spurts


Puberty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Puberty **

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This article is about puberty in humans. For puberty in other animals, see
Sexual maturity.
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*Puberty* is the process of physical changes by which a child's body
matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable
fertilisation. It is initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the
gonads; the ovaries in a girl, the testes in a boy. In response to the
signals, the gonads produce hormones that stimulate libido and the growth,
function, and transformation of the brain, bones, muscle, blood, skin,
hair, breasts, and sexual organs. Physical growth—height and
weight—accelerates in the first half of puberty and is completed when
the child has developed an adult body. Until the maturation of their
reproductive capabilities, the pre-pubertal, physical differences between
boys and girls are the genitalia, the penis and the vagina.

On average, girls begin puberty at ages 10–11; boys at ages
11–12.^[1]^[2]^[3] Girls usually complete puberty by ages
15–17,^[3]^[4]^[5] while boys usually complete puberty by ages
16–17.^[3]^[4]^[6] The major landmark of puberty for females is
menarche, the onset of menstruation, which occurs on average between ages
12–13;^[7]^[8]^[9]^[10] for males, it is the first ejaculation, which
occurs on average at age 13.^[11] In the 21st century, the average age at
which children, especially girls, reach puberty is lower compared to the
19th century, when it was 15 for girls and 16 for boys.^[12] This can be
due to any number of factors, including improved nutrition resulting in
rapid body growth, increased weight and fat deposition,^[13] or exposure to
endocrine disruptors such as xenoestrogens, which can at times be due


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puberty

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