Endorphins - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Endorphins **

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For other uses, see Endorphins (disambiguation).
Chemical structure of /alpha/-Neoendorphin (α-Neoendorphin)

*Endorphins* ("endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid peptides that
function as neurotransmitters.^[1] They are produced by the pituitary gland
and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during exercise,^[2]excitement, pain,
consumption of spicy food, love and orgasm,^[3]^[4] and they resemble the
opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a feeling of
well-being.

The term implies a pharmacological activity (analogous to the activity of
the corticosteroid category of biochemicals) as opposed to a specific
chemical formulation. It consists of two parts: /endo-/ and /-orphin/;
these are short forms of the words /endogenous/ and /morphine,/ intended to
mean "a morphine-like substance originating from within the body."^[5]

The term "endorphin rush" has been adopted in popular speech to refer to a
feeling of exhilaration that can be brought on by pain, danger, or other
forms of stress,^[2] supposedly due to the influence of endorphins. When a
nerve impulse reaches the spinal cord, endorphins that prevent nerve cells
from releasing more pain signals are released.

*Contents*

· 1 History
· 2 Mechanism of action
· 3 Activity

· 3.1 Runner's high
· 3.2 Depersonalization disorder
· 3.3 Relaxation
· 3.4 Acupuncture
· 3.5 Pregnancy

· 4 Etymology
· 5 References
· 6 External links

*History[edit]*

Opioid neuropeptides were first discovered in 1974 by two independent
groups of investigators:

· John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz of Scotland isolated — from the
brain of a pig — what some called enkephalins (from the Greek
εγκέφαλος, /cerebrum/).^[6]^[7]

· Around the same time, in a calf brain, Rabi Simantov and Solomon H.
Snyder of the United States found^[8] what


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endorphins


when are endorphins released

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