What is copd?
What Is COPD? - NHLBI, NIH
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
** Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease **
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
/Classification and external resources/
Gross pathology of a lung showing centrilobular-type emphysema
characteristic of smoking. This close-up of the fixed, cut lung surface
shows multiple cavities lined by heavy black carbon deposits.
ICD-10 J40âJ44, J47
ICD-9 490â492, 494â496
eMedicine med/373 emerg/99
*Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease* (*COPD*), also known as *chronic
obstructive lung disease* (*COLD*), *chronic obstructive airway disease*
(*COAD*), *chronic airflow limitation* (*CAL*) and *chronic obstructive
respiratory disease* (*CORD*), is the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or
emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which
the airways narrow over time.^ This limits airflow to and from the
lungs, causing shortness of breath (dyspnea). In clinical practice, COPD is
defined by its characteristically low airflow on lung function tests.^
In contrast to asthma, this limitation is poorly reversible and usually
gets increasingly worse over time.
COPD is caused by noxious particles or gas, most commonly from tobacco
smoking, which triggers an abnormal inflammatory response in the lung.^
The diagnosis of COPD requires lung function tests. Important management
strategies are smoking cessation, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and drug
therapy (often using inhalers). Some patients go on to require long-term
oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.^
Worldwide, COPD ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in 1990. It is
projected to become the fourth leading cause of death worldwide by 2030,
due to an increase in smoking rates and demographic changes in many
countries.^ COPD is the third leading cause of death in the U.S., and
the economic burden of COPD in the U.S. in
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