what are hydrocarbons made of


Hydrocarbon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Hydrocarbon **

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Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule, CH[4]. Methane is part of a
homologous series known as the alkanes, which contain single bonds only.

In organic chemistry, a *hydrocarbon* is an organic compound consisting
entirely of hydrogen and carbon.^[1] Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen
atom has been removed are functional groups, called
*hydrocarbyls*.^[2]Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, alkenes,
cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of
hydrocarbons.

The majority of hydrocarbons found on Earth naturally occur in crude oil,
where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and
hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless
chains.^[3]^[4]

*Contents*

· 1 Types of hydrocarbons

· 1.1 General properties
· 1.2 Simple hydrocarbons and their variations

· 2 Usage
· 3 Poisoning
· 4 Reactions

· 4.1 Substitution Reaction
· 4.2 Addition Reaction
· 4.3 Combustion

· 4.3.1 Petroleum
· 4.3.2 Bioremediation

· 5 Safety
· 6 See also
· 7 References
· 8 Bibliography
· 9 External links

*Types of hydrocarbons[edit]*

The classifications for hydrocarbons, defined by IUPAC nomenclature of
organic chemistry are as follows:

1. Saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) are the simplest of the hydrocarbon
species. They are composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with
hydrogen. The general formula for saturated hydrocarbons is C[/n/]H[/2n+2/]
(assuming non-cyclic structures).^[5] Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis
of petroleum fuels and are found as either linear or branched species.
Substitution reaction is their characteristics property (like chlorination
reaction to form chloroform). Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula
but different structural formulae are called structural isomers.^[6] As
given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, branched
hydrocarbons can be


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocarbon

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