What Are Gallstones? What Causes Gallstones?

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what are gallstones


Gallstone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Gallstone **

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Gallstone
/Classification and external resources/

Numerous small gallstones made up largely of cholesterol.
ICD-10 K80
ICD-9 574
OMIM 600803
DiseasesDB 2533
MedlinePlus 000273
eMedicine emerg/97
MeSH D042882

A *gallstone* is a crystalline concretion formed within the gallbladder by
accretion of bile components. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder
but may distally pass into other parts of the biliary tract such as the
cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct, or the ampulla of Vater.
Rarely, in cases of severe inflammation, gallstones may erode through the
gallbladder into adherent bowel potentially causing an obstruction termed
gallstone ileus.^[1]

Presence of gallstones in the gallbladder may lead to acute
cholecystitis,^[2] an inflammatory condition characterized by retention of
bile in the gallbladder and often secondary infection by intestinal
microorganisms, predominantly /Escherichia coli/, Klebsiella, Enterobacter,
and /Bacteroides/ species.^[3] Presence of gallstones in other parts of the
biliary tract can cause obstruction of the bile ducts, which can lead to
serious conditions such as ascending cholangitis or pancreatitis. Either of
these two conditions can be life-threatening and are therefore considered
to be medical emergencies.

*Contents*

· 1 Definitions
· 2 Characteristics and composition
· 3 Cholelithiasis

· 3.1 Symptoms
· 3.2 Causes
· 3.3 Pathophysiology
· 3.4 Diagnosis
· 3.5 Treatment

· 4 Choledocholithiasis

· 4.1 Signs and symptoms
· 4.2 Causes
· 4.3 Pathophysiology
· 4.4 Diagnosis
· 4.5 Treatment

· 5 In other animals
· 6 See also
· 7 References
· 8 External links

*Definitions[edit]*

Presence of stones in the gallbladder is referred to as cholelithiasis
(from the Greek /chol/- (bile) + /lith/- (stone) + /iasis/- (process). If
gallstones migrate


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallstone

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