What Are Carbohydrates? What Is Glucose?

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what are carbohydrates


Carbohydrate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Carbohydrate **

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. It consists of a molecule of
D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic
linkage. It has a formula of C[12]H[22]O[11].

A *carbohydrate* is an organic compound that consists only of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as
in water); in other words, with the empirical formula C[/m/](H[2]O)[/n/]
(where /m/ could be different from /n/).^[1] Some exceptions exist; for
example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,^[2] has the empirical
formula C[5]H[10]O[4].^[3] Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of
carbon;^[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy
aldehydes and ketones.^[5]

The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of
*saccharide*. The carbohydrates (saccharides) are divided into four
chemical groupings: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and
polysaccharides. In general, the monosaccharides and disaccharides, which
are smaller (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates, are commonly referred
to as sugars.^[6] The word /saccharide/ comes from the Greek word
/σάκχαρον/ (/sákkharon/), meaning "sugar." While
the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the
monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose. For
example, grape sugar is the monosaccharide glucose, cane sugar is the
disaccharide sucrose, and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose (see
illustration).

Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides
serve for the storage of energy (e.g., starch and glycogen), and as
structural components (e.g., cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods).
The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes
(e.g., ATP, FAD, and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as
RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate

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