What Are Amphetamines? What Do Amphetamines Do?

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what are amphetamines


Amphetamine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Amphetamine **

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Amphetamine (disambiguation).

Amphetamine


Systematic (IUPAC) name
(/RS/)-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
(/RS/)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane
Clinical data
Pregnancy cat. C (US)
Legal status Controlled (S8) (AU) Schedule I (CA) Class B (UK) Schedule II
(US) ℞ Prescription only
Dependence liability Moderate
Routes Oral, intravenous, vaporization, insufflation, rectal, sublingual
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability nasal 75%; rectal 95–99%
Protein binding 15–40%
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP2D6),^[1]FMN
Half-life 10h average for d-isomer, 13h for l-isomer (in adults)
Excretion Renal; significant portion unaltered
Identifiers
CAS number 300-62-9^ YesY405-41-4
ATC code N06BA01
PubChem CID 3007
DrugBank DB00182
ChemSpider 13852819^ YesY
UNII CK833KGX7E^ YesY
KEGG D07445^ N
ChEBI CHEBI:2679^ N
ChEMBL CHEMBL405^ N
NIAID ChemDB 018564
Synonyms alpha-methylbenzeneethanamine, alpha-methylphenethylamine,
beta-phenyl-isopropylamine
PDB ligand ID FRD (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
Chemical data
Formula C[9]H[13]N^ 
Mol. mass 135.2084
SMILES

· NC(C)Cc1ccccc1

InChI

· InChI=1S/C9H13N/c1-8(10)7-9-5-3-2-4-6-9/h2-6,8H,7,10H2,1H3^ N
Key:KWTSXDURSIMDCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N^ N

Physical data
Solubility in water 50–100 mg/mL (16C°) mg/mL (20 Â°C)
 N (what is this?)  (verify)


*Amphetamine* (USAN or *amfetamine* (INN) contracted from
alphamethyl-phenethylamine or *α-methylphenethylamine*) is
1-phenylpropan-2-amine or C[9]H[13]N. It exists as two enantiomers: the
levorotary form levamfetamine (INN) and dextrorotary form dexamfetamine
(INN). It is a psychostimulant drug of the phenethylamine class that
produces increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased
fatigue and appetite.

Amphetamine is used as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, and is typically prescribed as amphetamine
mixed salts or as dextroamphetamine. It has historically been used to treat
obesity.

Amphetamine increases activity related to the neurotransmitters dopamine
and norepinephrine in the brain. This causes resistance to fatigue,
elevation of mood, heightened libido, euphoria, and loss of appetite.
Repeated high-dose exposure can lead to a mental state characterized by
delusions, psychosis, and paranoia. The effects of amphetamines on
serotonin transmission may contribute to hallucinations, appetite


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphetamine

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