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** Water on Mars **

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For the music group, see Water on Mars (band). For the Doctor Who episode,
see The Waters of Mars.
An artist's impression of what ancient Mars may have looked like, based on
geological data
Dry channels near Warrego Valles

*Water on Mars* exists almost exclusively as water ice, and is located in
the Martian polar ice caps and under the shallow Martian surface even at
more temperate latitudes.^[1]^[2] A small amount of water vapor is present
in the atmosphere.^[3]

There are no bodies of liquid water on the Martian surface because its
atmospheric pressure at the surface averages 600 pascals (0.087 psi)
—about 0.6% of Earth's mean sea level pressure— and because the
temperature is far too low, (210 K (−63 Â°C)) leading to immediate
freezing. Despite this, about 3.8 billion years ago,^[4] there was a denser
atmosphere, higher temperature, and vast amounts of liquid water flowed on
the surface,^[5]^[6] including large oceans.^[7]^[8]^[9]^[10]^[11] It has
been estimated that the primordial oceans on Mars would have covered
between 36% ^[12]^[13] and 75% of the planet.^[14]

There are a number of direct and indirect proofs of water presence either
on or under the surface, e.g. dry stream beds,^[15]^[16]^[17]^[18]polar
caps, glaciers,^[19]^[20]^[21]^[22]^[23] radar and spectroscopic
measurements,^[24]eroded craters and weathered minerals directly connected
to the past existence of liquid water.^[25]^[26]^[27]^[28]^[29] Several
Mars orbiters have detected the basins of ancient
lakes,^[30]^[31]^[32]^[33]^[34]^[35]^[36] ancient river valleys,^[16]^[37]
and evidence of widespread glaciations,^[20]^[38]^[39]^[40]^[41] while
several landers and rovers directly analyzed soil and water ice from the
shallow sub-surface.

Although the surface of Mars was wet and could have been hospitable to

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_on_Mars

is there ice on mars

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