Blood–brain barrier - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


** Blood–brain barrier **

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Part of a network of capillaries supplying brain cells
The astrocytes type 1 surrounding capillaries in the brain
A cortical microvessel stained for blood–brain barrier protein ZO-1

The *blood–brain barrier* (*BBB*) is a separation of circulating blood
from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system
(CNS). It occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions
around the capillaries that do not exist in normal
circulation.^[1]Endothelial cells restrict the diffusion of microscopic
objects (e.g., bacteria) and large or hydrophilic molecules into the
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while allowing the diffusion of small
hydrophobic molecules (O[2], CO[2], hormones).^[2] Cells of the barrier
actively transport metabolic products such as glucose across the barrier
with specific proteins.^[/citation needed/] This barrier also includes a
thick basement membrane and astrocytic endfeet.^[3]


· 1 History
· 2 Physiology
· 3 Development
· 4 Pathophysiology
· 5 Drugs targeting the brain

· 5.1 Nanoparticles
· 5.2 Peptides

· 6 Diseases involving the blood–brain barrier

· 6.1 Meningitis
· 6.2 Brain abscess
· 6.3 Epilepsy
· 6.4 Multiple sclerosis
· 6.5 Neuromyelitis optica
· 6.6 Late-stage neurological trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)
· 6.7 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
· 6.8 De Vivo disease
· 6.9 Alzheimer's Disease
· 6.10 HIV encephalitis
· 6.11 Rabies

· 7 See also
· 8 References
· 9 Further reading


Paul Ehrlich was a bacteriologist studying staining, a procedure that is
used in many microscopic studies to make fine biological structures visible
using chemical dyes. When Ehrlich injected some of these dyes (notably the
aniline dyes that were then widely used), the


is there blood in the brain

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