How is natural gas transported?
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The Transportation of Natural Gas
Source: Duke Energy Gas Transmission Canada
The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions
to consumption regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation
system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well will
have to travel a great distance to reach its point of use. The
transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of
pipelines, designed to quickly and efficiently transport natural gas from
its origin, to areas of high natural gas demand. Transportation of natural
gas is closely linked to its storage: should the natural gas being
transported not be immediately required, it can be put into storage
facilities for when it is needed.
There are three major types of pipelines along the transportation route:
the gathering system, the interstate pipeline system, and the distribution
system. The gathering system consists of low pressure, small diameter
pipelines that transport raw natural gas from the wellhead to the
processing plant. Should natural gas from a particular well have high
sulfur and carbon dioxide contents (sour gas), a specialized sour gas
gathering pipe must be installed. Sour gas is corrosive, thus its
transportation from the wellhead to the sweetening plant must be done
carefully. Review the treatment and processing of natural gas.
Pipelines can be characterized as interstate or intrastate. Interstate
pipelines are similar to in the interstate highway system: they carry
natural gas across state boundaries, in some cases clear across
Natural gas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
** Natural gas **
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For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation).
Natural gas extraction by countries in cubic meters per year.
*Natural gas* is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting
primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher
alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and
hydrogen sulfide.^ Natural gas is an energy source often used for
heating, cooking, and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for
vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and
other commercially important organic chemicals.
Natural gas is found in deep underground natural rock formations or
associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane
clathrates. Petroleum is also another resource found in proximity to and
with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms:
biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms
in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at
greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried
Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo processing to
remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of
marketable natural gas. The by-products of processing include ethane,
propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons,
hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide,
water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as *gas*, especially
when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. But not to be
confused with gasoline especially in North America, the term gasoline also
is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas.
Natural gas coming out of
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