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how is fracking done

Hydraulic fracturing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


** Hydraulic fracturing **

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Fracking" redirects here. For other uses, see Fracking (disambiguation).

Hydraulic fracturing
Schematic depiction of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas.
Process type Mechanical
Industrial sector(s) Mining
Main technologies or sub-processes Fluid pressure
Product(s) Natural gas
Inventor Floyd Farris; J.B. Clark (Stanolind Oil and Gas Corporation)
Year of invention 1947

*Hydraulic fracturing* is the fracturing of rock by a pressurized liquid.
Some hydraulic fractures form naturally—certain veins or dikes are
examples. *Induced hydraulic fracturing* or *hydrofracturing*, commonly
known as *fracking*, is a technique in which typically water is mixed with
sand and chemicals, and the mixture is injected at high pressure into a
wellbore to create fractures, which form conduits along which fluids such
as gas, petroleum, and groundwater may migrate to the well. The technique
is very common in wells for shale gas, tight gas, tight oil, and coal seam
gas.^[1]^[2] A different technique where only acid is injected is referred
to as acidizing.

The first experimental use of hydraulic fracturing was in 1947, and the
first commercially successful applications were in 1949. As of 2010, it was
estimated that 60% of all new oil and gas wells worldwide were being
hydraulically fractured.^[3] As of 2012, 2.5 million hydraulic fracturing
jobs have been performed on oil and gas wells worldwide, more than one
million of them in the United States.^[4]

Head of the frac pump

Proponents of hydraulic fracturing point to the economic benefits from the
vast amounts of formerly inaccessible hydrocarbons the process can
extract.^[5] Opponents point to potential environmental impacts, including
contamination of ground water, depletion of fresh water, risks to air
quality, the migration of gases and hydraulic


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