Dry ice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


** Dry ice **

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Small pellets of dry ice sublimating in air
Crystal structure of dry ice

*Dry ice*, sometimes referred to as "*Cardice*" or as "*card ice*" (chiefly
British English), is the solid form of carbon dioxide. It is used primarily
as a cooling agent. Its advantages include lower temperature than that of
water ice and not leaving any residue (other than incidental frost from
moisture in the atmosphere). It is useful for preserving frozen foods, ice
cream, etc., where mechanical cooling is unavailable.

Dry ice sublimates at −78.5 °C (−109.3 °F) at Earth
atmospheric pressures. This extreme cold makes the solid dangerous to
handle without protection due to burns caused by freezing (frostbite).
While generally not very toxic, the outgassing from it can cause
hypercapnia due to buildup in confined locations.


· 1 Properties
· 2 History
· 3 Manufacture
· 4 Applications

· 4.1 Commercial
· 4.2 Industrial
· 4.3 Scientific
· 4.4 Dry ice bombs

· 5 Safety
· 6 Occurrence on Mars and Venus
· 7 References
· 8 Bibliography


For supplementary chemical data, see Carbon dioxide (data page).

Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO[2]),
comprising two oxygen atoms bonded to a single carbon atom. It is
colorless, with a sour zesty odor, non-flammable, and slightly acidic.^[1]

Phase diagram of carbon dioxide

At temperatures below −56.4 °C (−69.5 Â°F) and pressures
below 5.13 atm (the triple point), CO[2] changes from a solid to a gas with
no intervening liquid form, through a process called sublimation. The
opposite process is called deposition, where CO[2] changes from the gas to
solid phase (dry

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_ice

how is dry ice made

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