DNA replication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** DNA replication **

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DNA replication. The double helix is unwound and each strand acts as a
template for the next strand. Bases are matched to synthesize the new
partner strands.

*DNA replication* is the process of producing two identical copies from one
original DNA molecule. This biological process occurs in all living
organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. DNA is composed of
two strands and each strand of the original DNA molecule serves as template
for the production of the complementary strand, a process referred to as
semiconservative replication. Cellular proofreading and error-checking
mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.^[1]^[2]

In a cell, DNA replication begins at specific locations, or origins of
replication, in the genome.^[3] Unwinding of DNA at the origin and
synthesis of new strands results in replication forks growing
bidirectionally from the origin. A number of proteins are associated with
the replication fork which assist in the initiation and continuation of DNA
synthesis. Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new DNA by
adding complementary nucleotides to the template strand.

DNA replication can also be performed /in vitro/ (artificially, outside a
cell). DNA polymerases isolated from cells and artificial DNA primers can
be used to initiate DNA synthesis at known sequences in a template DNA
molecule. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a common laboratory
technique, cyclically applies such artificial synthesis to amplify a
specific target DNA fragment from a pool of DNA.

*Contents*

· 1 Background on DNA structure
· 2 DNA polymerase
· 3 Replication process

· 3.1 Initiation
· 3.2 Extension
· 3.3 Replication fork

· 3.3.1 Leading strand
· 3.3.2 Lagging strand
· 3.3


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_replication


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