How do you know what an element's electronegativity is? - Yahoo! Answers

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how do you know electronegativity


Electronegativity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Electronegativity **

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Electronegative" redirects here. For the Nightfall EP, see Electronegative
(EP).
This electrostatic potential map shows how the oxygen atom has a more
negative charge (red) than the positive (blue) hydrogen atoms of a water
molecule .

*Electronegativity*, symbol *χ*, is a chemical property that describes
the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or
electron density) towards itself.^[1] An atom's electronegativity is
affected by both its atomic number and the distance that its valence
electrons reside from the charged nucleus. The higher the associated
electronegativity number, the more an element or compound attracts
electrons towards it. First proposed by Linus Pauling in 1932 as a
development of valence bond theory,^[2] it has been shown to correlate with
a number of other chemical properties. Electronegativity cannot be directly
measured and must be calculated from other atomic or molecular properties.
Several methods of calculation have been proposed, and although there may
be small differences in the numerical values of the electronegativity, all
methods show the same periodic trends between elements.

The most commonly used method of calculation is that originally proposed by
Linus Pauling. This gives a dimensionless quantity, commonly referred to as
the *Pauling scale*, on a relative scale running from around 0.7 to 3.98
(hydrogen = 2.20). When other methods of calculation are used, it is
conventional (although not obligatory) to quote the results on a scale that
covers the same range of numerical values: this is known as an
electronegativity in *Pauling units*.

Electronegativity, as it is usually calculated, is not strictly a property
of an atom, but rather a property of an atom in a molecule.^[3] Properties
of a free atom


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronegativity

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