Molecular Polarity

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*Molecular Polarity

*

{{When there are no polar bonds in a molecule, there is no permanent charge
difference between one part of the molecule and another, and the molecule
is nonpolar. For example, the Cl[2] molecule has no polar bonds because the
electron charge is identical on both atoms. It is therefore a nonpolar
molecule. None of the bonds in hydrocarbon molecules, such as hexane,
C[6]H[14], are significantly polar, so hydrocarbons are nonpolar molecular
substances.

A molecule can possess polar bonds and still be nonpolar. If the polar
bonds are evenly (or symmetrically) distributed, the bond dipoles cancel
and do not create a molecular dipole. For example, the three bonds in a
molecule of BF[3] are significantly polar, but they are symmetrically
arranged around the central boron atom. No side of the molecule has more
negative or positive charge than another side, and so the molecule is
nonpolar:

{{

}}

A water molecule is polar because (1) its O-H bonds are significantly
polar, and (2) its bent geometry makes the distribution of those polar
bonds asymmetrical. The side of the water molecule containing the more
electronegative oxygen atom is partially negative, and the side of the
molecule containing the less electronegative hydrogen atoms is partially
positive.

{{

 

*Sample Study Sheet*: Predicting Molecular Polarity

*Tip-off* – You are asked to predict whether a molecule is polar or
nonpolar; or you are asked a question that cannot be answered unless you
know whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar. (For example


Source: preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_molecular_polarity.htm


how do you know a bond is polar

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