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** How Are GMOs Made? **

To make a genetically modified organism, three main components are
required: the gene you want to transfer, the organism you want to put it
into (target species), and a vector to carry the gene into the target
species cells.

The steps in making a GMO are relatively straightforward, but can be
technically challenging. The gene to be transfered (*trans-gene*) must be
cut out and isolated from the original organism. This is usually done by
restriction enzymes, which are like molecular scissors, that recognize
specific sequences in the DNA and cut it at those places.

-Restriction Enzymes-

A *restriction endonuclease* is an enzyme that cuts strands of DNA at a
specific point. It scans the DNA for a specific target sequence, and when
it finds that target sequence it cleaves the DNA. Target sequences are
relatively short. For instance, the common restriction enzyme EcoR1 only
has a 6 basepair target sequence. To date, thousands of restriction
endonucleases (RE) have been isolated


how are gmos created

What Are GMOs and How Are They Made?


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** What Are GMOs and How Are They Made? **

*The Basics of Genetic Modification*

By Paul Diehl, Guide

*See More About*

· gmos
· gene cloning
· food

How do you genetically modify an organism? Actually, this is a pretty broad
question. An organism can be a plant, animal, fungus, or bacteria and all
of these can be, and have been, genetically engineered for almost 40 years.
The first genetically engineered organisms were bacteria in the early
1970s. Since then, genetically modified bacteria have become the work horse
of hundreds of thousands of labs doing genetic modifications on both plants
and animals. Most of the basic gene shuffling and modifications are
designed and prepared using bacteria, mainly some variation of E. coli,
then transferred to target organisms.

The general approach to genetically alter plants, animals, or microbes is
conceptually pretty similar. However, there are some differences in the
specific techniques due to general differences between plant and animal
cells. For example, plant cells have cell walls and animal cells do not.

*Reasons for Genetic Modifications of Plants and Animals*

Genetic engineering is the most effective and rapid way to create a plant
or animal with a specific trait or characteristic. It enables precise
specific changes to the DNA sequence. Since the DNA is essentially
comprises the blueprint for the whole organism, changes to the DNA change
the functions the organism is capable of. There is really no other way to
do this except by using the techniques developed over the last 40 years to
directly manipulate


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