Systematics of the Fungi

--------------------
--------------------

** Fungi: Systematics **




Fungi are usually classified in four divisions: the *Chytridiomycota*
(chytrids), *Zygomycota* (bread molds), *Ascomycota* (yeasts and sac
fungi), and the *Basidiomycota* (club fungi). Placement into a division is
based on the way in which the fungus reproduces sexually. The shape and
internal structure of the *sporangia*, which produce the spores, are the
most useful character for identifying these various major groups.

There are also two conventional groups which are not recognized as formal
taxonomic groups (ie. they are polyphyletic); these are the Deuteromycota
(fungi imperfecti), and the lichens. The *Deuteromycota* includes all fungi
which have lost the ability to reproduce sexually. As a result, it is not
known for certain into which group they should be placed, and thus the
Deuteromycota becomes a convenient place to dump them until someone gets
around to working out their biology.

Unlike other fungi, the *lichens* are not a single organism, but rather a
symbiotic association between a fungus and an alga. The fungal member of
the lichen is usually an ascomycete or basidiomycete, and the alga is
usually a cyanobacterium or a chlorophyte (green alga). Often the fungal
partner is unable to grow without the algal symbiont, making it difficult
to classify these organisms. They will be treated here as a separate group,
but it should be realized that they are neither single organisms, nor a
monophyletic group.

It should also be noted that some organisms carry the name of mold or
fungus, but are NOT classified in the Kingdom Fungi. These include the
slime molds and water molds (Oomycota). The slime molds are now known to be
a mixture of three or four unrelated groups, and the oomycetes are now
classified in the Chromista, with the diatoms and brown algae.

--------------------

The


Source: www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/fungisy.html


how are fungi classified


Fungus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

--------------------

** Fungus **

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Fungi" redirects here. You may be looking for Fungi (music) or Fungus
(XM).
Page semi-protected

Fungi
Temporal range: Early Devonian–Recent (but see text)
PreЄ
Є
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
A collage of five fungi (clockwise from top left): a mushroom with a flat,
red top with white-spots, and a white stem growing on the ground; a red
cup-shaped fungus growing on wood; a stack of green and white moldy bread
slices on a plate; a microscopic, spherical grey-colored semitransparent
cell, with a smaller spherical cell beside it; a microscopic view of an
elongated cellular structure shaped like a microphone, attached to the
larger end is a number of smaller roughly circular elements that
collectively form a mass around it
Clockwise from top left:
/Amanita muscaria/, a basidiomycete;
/Sarcoscypha coccinea/, an ascomycete;
bread covered in mold;
a chytrid;
an /Aspergillus/ conidiophore.
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Opisthokonta
Kingdom: *Fungi*
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980^[1]
Subkingdoms/Phyla/Subphyla^[2]
Blastocladiomycota
Chytridiomycota
Glomeromycota
Microsporidia
Neocallimastigomycota

Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota)

Ascomycota

Pezizomycotina
Saccharomycotina
Taphrinomycotina

Basidiomycota

Agaricomycotina
Pucciniomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina

Subphyla /incertae sedis/

Entomophthoromycotina
Kickxellomycotina
Mucoromycotina
Zoopagomycotina

A *fungus* (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/; plural: fungi^[3] or funguses^[4]) is
a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes
microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well
as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a
kingdom, *Fungi*, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One
major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin,
unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. These and other
differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms,
named the /Eumycota/ (/true fungi/ or /Eumycetes/), that share


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus

© 2005-2018 HaveYourSay.org