How are enzymes named? - Yahoo! Answers

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how are enzymes named


Restriction enzyme - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Restriction enzyme **

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Wiktionary-logo-en.svg *Restriction Enzyme Glossary*
Restriction

The cutting of DNA at specific boundaries

Enzyme
A protein that catalyzes a chemical reaction
Molecular recognition

Used by restriction enzymes to locate specific sequences of DNA on which to
bind and subsequently cleave

Recognition sequence

The DNA sequence to which restriction enzymes bind

Restriction site

The DNA sequence that is cleaved by the restriction enzyme

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A *restriction enzyme* (or *restriction endonuclease*) is an enzyme that
cuts DNA at or near specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as
restriction sites.^[1]^[2]^[3] Restriction enzymes are commonly classified
into three types, which differ in their structure and whether they cut
their DNA substrate at their recognition site, or if the recognition and
cleavage sites are separate from one another. To cut DNA, all restriction
enzymes make two incisions, once through each sugar-phosphate backbone
(i.e. each strand) of the DNA double helix.

These enzymes are found in bacteria and archaea and provide a defense
mechanism against invading viruses.^[4]^[5] Inside a prokaryote, the
restriction enzymes selectively cut up /foreign/ DNA in a process called
/restriction/; while host DNA is protected by a modification enzyme (a
methylase) that modifies the prokaryotic DNA and blocks cleavage. Together,
these two processes form the restriction modification system.^[6]

Over 3000 restriction enzymes have been studied in detail, and more than
600 of these are available commercially.^[7] These enzymes are routinely
used for DNA modification and manipulation in laboratories, and are a vital
tool in molecular cloning.^[8]^[9]^[10]

*Contents*

· 1 History
· 2 Recognition site
· 3 Types

· 3.1 Type I
· 3.2 Type II
· 3.3 Type III


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restriction_enzyme

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