What Is Cell Differentiation? - Process, Importance & Examples - Video &

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how are cells differentiated


Cellular differentiation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Cellular differentiation **

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Cell differentiation" redirects here. For the journal, see Cell
Differentiation (journal).

In developmental biology, *cellular differentiation* is the process of a
cell changing from one cell type to another.^[1]^[2] Most commonly this is
a less specialized type becoming a more specialized type, such as during
cell growth. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development
of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex
system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as
adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells
during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Some differentiation
occurs in response to antigen exposure. Differentiation dramatically
changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and
responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly
controlled modifications in gene expression and are the study of
epigenetics. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never
involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. Thus, different cells can
have very different physical characteristics despite having the same
genome.

A cell that can differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism is
known as /pluripotent/. Such cells are called embryonic stem cells in
animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that can
differentiate into all cell types, including the placental tissue, is known
as /totipotent/. In mammals, only the zygote and subsequent blastomeres are
totipotent, while in plants many differentiated cells can become totipotent
with simple laboratory techniques. In cytopathology, the level of cellular
differentiation is used as a measure of cancer progression. "Grade" is a
marker of how differentiated a cell in a tumor is.^[3]

*Contents*

· 1 Mammalian cell types
· 2 Dedifferentiation


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_differentiation

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