How are caves formed?
Formation of cave
** The Creation of a Cave **
*Cave formation *begins when rainwater absorbs carbon dioxide as it falls
through the atmosphere. Rain water must have carbon dioxide to become
acidic. It must be acidic to chemically react to the limestone bedrock.
Rainwater is absorbed by the soil into the ground.
As rainwater comes through the soil it absorbs more carbon dioxide that is
being produced by plants that are dead. This changes the ground water to a
weaker form of carbonic acid(HO + CO[2 ]= HCO). As it travels down
through the ground it comes to solid rock. When the rock is limestone or
dolomite caves can form.
The water reacts chemically with limestone and slowly a larger and larger
space will form. This happens because the rocks are made of calcium
carbonate (CaCO). This is what you call chemical erosion.
As the space becomes larger and larger the water can flow through. As it
flows it erodes . Physical erosion washes away rock and sand. This is what
makes a cave larger and forms an underground stream. Finally over hundreds
of thousands of years or even millions of years the cave is formed.
Here is an activity that you can try. Mix a mild acid (vinegar) with a base
(baking soda). The reaction of the two substances illustrates the process
carbonic acid dissolving limestone, but actual limestone solution by
carbonic acid is a weaker, less noticeable reaction.
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Cave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
** Cave **
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"Cavern" redirects here. For other uses, see Cavern (disambiguation).
Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico
A *cave* or *cavern* is a natural underground space large enough for a
human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often
extend deep underground. The word "cave" can also refer to much smaller
openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos.
Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves
and the environment that surrounds the caves. Exploring a cave for
recreation or science may be called /caving/, /potholing/, or /spelunking/.
· 1 Types and formation
· 1.1 Solutional cave
· 1.2 Primary cave
· 1.3 Sea cave or littoral cave
· 1.4 Corrasional cave or erosional cave
· 1.5 Glacier cave
· 1.6 Fracture cave
· 1.7 Talus cave
· 1.8 Anchialine cave
· 2 Physical patterns
· 3 Geographic distribution
· 4 Records and superlatives
· 4.1 World's five longest surveyed caves
· 5 Ecology
· 6 Archaeological and cultural importance
· 7 See also
· 8 References
· 9 External links
*Types and formation*
The formation and development of caves is known as /speleogenesis/. Caves
are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These
may involve a combination of chemical processes, erosion from water,
tectonic forces, microorganisms, pressure, and atmospheric influences.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the lower
limit of karst forming processes, coinciding with the base sequences
limestone,^ which may be lower than the erosion base^ due to the
presence of siphon channels.^
Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution.^
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