How are antibiotics made?
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** How are antibiotics made? **
how, where, with what, and by who are antibiotics made? links are helpful!
· 6 years ago
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Kath_R.N. by Kath_R.N...
* Member since:
Production of antibiotics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
** Production of antibiotics **
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This article includes a list of references, related reading or external
links, but *its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations*.
Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations. /(May
The *production of antibiotics* has been widespread since the pioneering
efforts of Florey and Chain in 1938. The importance of antibiotics to
medicine has led to much research into their discovery and production.
· 1 Identifying useful antibiotics
· 2 Industrial production techniques
· 3 Strains used for production
· 4 References
*Identifying useful antibiotics*
An agar plate streaked with microorganisms.
Despite the wide variety of known antibiotics, less than 1% of
antimicrobial agents have medical or commercial value. For example, whereas
penicillin has a high therapeutic index as it does not generally affect
human cells, this is not so for many antibiotics. Other antibiotics simply
lack advantage over those already in use, or have no other practical
Useful antibiotics are often discovered using a screening process. To
conduct such a screen, isolates of many different microorganisms are
cultured and then tested for production of diffusible products that inhibit
the growth of test organisms. Most antibiotics identified in such a screen
are already known and must therefore be disregarded. The remainder must be
tested for their selective toxicities and therapeutic activities, and the
best candidates can be examined and possibly modified.
A more modern version of this approach is a rational design program. This
involves screening directed towards finding new natural products that
inhibit a specific target, such as an enzyme only found in the target
pathogen, rather than tests to show general inhibition of a culture.
*Industrial production techniques*
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