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Clostridium difficile colitis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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** Clostridium difficile colitis **

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"Clostridium difficile" redirects here. For the bacterium, see Clostridium
difficile (bacteria).

/Clostridium difficile/ colitis
Clostridium difficile 01.png/C. difficile/ colonies on a blood agar plate
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 A04.7
ICD-9 008.45
MedlinePlus 000259
eMedicine med/1942
MeSH D004761

*/Clostridium difficile/ colitis* (etymology and pronunciation) or
*pseudomembranous colitis* is colitis (inflammation of the large intestine)
resulting from infection with /Clostridium difficile/, a spore-forming
bacterium.^[1] It causes an infectious diarrhea called */C. difficile/
associated diarrhea* (CDAD). Latent symptoms of /Clostridium difficile/
infection (CDI) often mimic some flu-like symptoms and may mimic disease
flare-ups in people with inflammatory bowel disease–associated
colitis.^[2]/C. difficile/ releases toxins that may cause bloating and
diarrhea, with abdominal pain, which may become severe.

The colitis is thought to occur when this bacterium replaces normal gut
flora that has been compromised, usually following antibiotic treatment for
an unrelated infection. The disturbance of normal healthy bacteria may
provide /C. difficile/ an opportunity to overrun the intestinal
microbiome.^[3] It is a type of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

Often, mild cases of CDI may be treated by discontinuing the offending
antibiotics. More serious cases require targeted antibiotic treatment.
Relapses of CDI have been reported in up to 20% of cases.^[4]/C. difficile/
infection is a growing problem in health care facilities, killing
approximately 29,000 people in the United States in 2011.^[5]

*Contents*

· 1 Signs and symptoms
· 2 Cause

· 2.1 /C. difficile/
· 2.2 Risk factors

· 2.2.1 Antibiotics
· 2.2.2 Healthcare environment
· 2.2.3 Acid suppression medication

· 3 Pathophysiology
· 4 Diagnosis

· 4.1 Cytotoxicity assay
· 4.2 Toxin ELISA


Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_difficile_colitis

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