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** DSA News **

Home » News

Welcome to our News and Media section. Here you'll find our latest
news, press releases, terminology guides and tips to to help you engage
with the media.

-Latest Stories-

· Research project looking for more people to part in trail
· DSA briefing on Children and Families Bill
· Work for the Down's Syndrome Association
· My Perspective Photographic Competition 2013 - Winner Announced
· DSA Statement on Non-invasive Blood Test Research News

-Latest Press Releases-

· Making Inclusion a Reality
· Shifting Perspectives visits Llandudno, Wales
· Shifting Perspectives in South Africa supporting the 11th World Down
Syndrome Congress 2012
· Pullen Ships Set Sail
· My Perspective Photographic Award 2012

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Down syndrome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


** Down syndrome **

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Down syndrome
/Classification and external resources/

Boy with Down syndrome assembling a bookcase
ICD-10 Q90
ICD-9 758.0
OMIM 190685
DiseasesDB 3898
MedlinePlus 000997
eMedicine ped/615
MeSH D004314

*Down syndrome* (*DS*) or *Down's syndrome*, also known as *trisomy 21*, is
a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of
chromosome 21.^[1] Down syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality
in humans.^[2] It is typically associated with a delay in cognitive ability
(mental retardation, or MR) and physical growth, and a particular set of
facial characteristics.^[1] The average IQ of young adults with Down
syndrome is around 50, whereas young adults without the condition typically
have an IQ of 100.^[1]^[3] (MR has historically been defined as an IQ below
70.) A large proportion of individuals with Down syndrome have a severe
degree of intellectual disability.^[1]

Down syndrome is named after John Langdon Down, the British physician who
described the syndrome in 1866.^[4] The condition was clinically described
earlier by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in 1838 and Edouard Seguin in
1844.^[5] Down syndrome was identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy by Dr.
Jérôme Lejeune in 1959. Down syndrome can be identified in a newborn
by direct observation or in a fetus by prenatal screening.^[1]^[6]
Pregnancies with this diagnosis are often terminated.^[7]

The CDC estimates that about one of every 691 babies born in the United
States each year is born with Down syndrome.^[8]

Many children with Down syndrome are educated in regular school classes
while others require specialised educational facilities. Some children
graduate from high school,^[9] and, in the US


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